Furthermore, there is a potential for further cost reduction. For topographically demanding routes, maglev trains already offer clear advantages in the cost of infrastructure construction.
Some Maglev systems can manage ascending grades of 10% and more (Transrapid maglev), while traditional railroads (for passanger transport) are limited to grades on the order of 4%. Maglevs adapt more easily to the landscape and therefore require fewer tunnels. This offers enormous cost savings in infrastructure construction, particularly in hilly landscapes.
New manufacturing processes in track construction, for example, the spun concrete construction technique and other modular production concepts, make it possible to reduce the costs of mass production considerably. In hilly landscapes, maglev guideways on pier foundations -- spaced tens of meters apart -- are considerably more economical than the massive, expensive embankments and causeways usually required for the entire length for most wheel/rail systems.
Maglev guideways can avoid obstacles without special additional bridge constructions. At-grade crossings with other traffic routes are eliminated and, therefore, collisions are rendered impossible. In the case of elevated track, alternative uses of the land under the track are still possible.